I was a student teacher in a Massachusetts elementary school, and it took me awhile to figure out the correlation between the pencil and hallway behavior.
English contains a number of sounds and sound distinctions not present in some other languages. Speakers of languages without these sounds may have problems both with hearing and with pronouncing them. Native speakers of ArabicTagalogJapaneseKoreanand important dialects of all current Iberian Romance languages including most of Spanish have difficulty distinguishing [b] and [v], what is known as betacism.
This is present in some English registers—known as l-vocalization —but may be shunned as substandard or bring confusion in others. Languages may also differ in syllable structure ; English allows for a cluster of up to three consonants before the vowel and five after it e.
Japanese and Brazilian Portuguesefor example, broadly alternate consonant and vowel sounds so learners from Japan and Brazil often force vowels between the consonants e.
Similarly, in most Iberian dialects, a word can begin with [s], and [s] can be followed by a consonant, but a word can never begin with [s] immediately followed by a consonant, so learners whose mother tongue is in this language family often have a vowel in front of the word e.
Grammar[ edit ] Tense, aspect, and mood — English has a relatively large number of tense—aspect—mood forms with some quite subtle differences, such as the difference between the simple past "I ate" and the present perfect "I have eaten".
Progressive and perfect progressive forms add complexity. Functions of auxiliaries — Learners of English tend to find it difficult to manipulate the various ways in which English uses auxiliary verbs.
These include negation e. He hasn't been drinking. Has he been drinking? Modal verbs — English has several modal auxiliary verbswhich each has a number of uses. These verbs convey a special sense or mood such as obligation, necessity, ability, probability, permission, possibility, prohibition, intention etc.
These include "must", "can", "have to", "need to", "will", "shall", "ought to", "will have to", "may", and "might". For example, the opposite of "You must be here at 8" obligation is usually "You don't have to be here at 8" lack of obligation, choice. This complexity takes considerable work for most English language learners to master.
All these modal verbs or "modals" take the first form of the verb after them. These modals most of them do not have past or future inflection, i. Idiomatic usage — English is reputed to have a relatively high degree of idiomatic usage. Another example is the idiomatic distinction between "make" and "do":The Guide to Grammar and Writing is sponsored by the Capital Community College Foundation, a nonprofit c-3 organization that supports scholarships, faculty development, and curriculum heartoftexashop.com you feel we have provided something of value and wish to show your appreciation, you can assist the College and its students with a tax-deductible contribution.
Resources for teaching writing in the classroom. These lesson plans and materials are appropriate for general English classes, for Exams . Academic Writing for PhD Students (self-study materials for PhD students on writing a first year report and writing about qualitative research from University of Edinburgh).
Activities for ESL Students (Self-study quizzes, interactive quizzes, crossword puzzles and more from teachers around the world).
This English listening Web site created by Randall Davis helps ESL/EFL students improve their listening comprehension skills through practice with self-grading quiz pages.
English as a second or foreign language is the use of English by speakers with different native heartoftexashop.comge education for people learning English may be known as English as a second language (ESL), English as a foreign language (EFL), English as an additional language (EAL), or English for speakers of other languages (ESOL).The aspect in which ESL is taught is called teaching .
Adopt a Content-based ESL Curriculum to Accelerate Academic Language Proficiency. This article provides a critical needs rationale for implementing a content-based ESL curriculum and discusses ways to .